Distinction Between Bipartite And Tripartite Forms
The Sonatine Form
T The Second Rondo Form
The Necessity Of Form In Music
The Melodic Figure
The Sonata-allegro Form
Random Music Lessons
Unity And Variety
Species Of Cadence
The First Part
Finally,--there exists another, third, condition,
besides those mentioned at the head of this chapter, whereby a phrase may
assume an irregular dimension; not by doubling or dividing its length (as
in the large and small phrases) nor by the processes of extension,--but
by an arbitrary and apparently incalculable act of melodic liberty,--by
allowing the melody to choose its own time for the cadential
interruption. This comparatively rare occurrence is illustrated in Ex.
17, No. 1 (five-measure phrase), and Ex. 17, No. 2, second phrase (six
measures long). It is true that in each of these cases the extra
measures might be accounted for as extension by modified
repetition,--for instance, in No. 1 the second measure might be called
a reproduction (or extension) of the first measure. But cases will be
encountered where a phrase of three, five, six, or seven measures will
admit of no such analysis. In such instances the student is compelled to
rely simply upon the evidence of the cadence. As was advised in the
context of Ex. 17, he must endeavor to define the phrase by recognition
of its beginning and ending, as such; or by exercising his judgment
of the cadential impression. See also Ex. 48, second phrase (six
See Schubert, pianoforte sonata No. 1 (A minor, op. 42)
Scherzo-movement; first 28 measures, divided into 5 phrases,--as
demonstrated by the melodic formation--of 5, 5, 5, 7 and 6 measures.
Also Schubert, Impromptu, op. 90, No. 3, measures 42 to 55 (phrases of
5, 5 and 4 measures.)
LESSON 6. Analyze the following examples, locating the cadences and
defining their value (as perfect or semicadence); and determining the
nature of each irregular phrase (as small, large, or extended phrase):
Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 22, second movement (Adagio), first
Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 28, Scherzo-movement.
Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 14, No. 3, Menuetto.
Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words: No. 4, first 5 measures.
No. 46, last 9 1/2 measures.
No. 42, last 15 measures.
No. 45, last 11 measures.
No. 12, last 12 measures.
No. 14, last 11 measures.
No. 36, last 22 measures.
No. 37, last 11 measures.
Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 27, No. 2, last movement; measures 7 to
23 from the second double-bar.
Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 28, first movement; from the double-bar
(near the middle of the movement) measures 21 to 94 (fermata symbol);
in this extraordinary specimen of phrase-development, the original
four-measure phrase yields seventy-four successive measures, with very
few cadences to divide it even into sections. Same sonata, last
movement, last eighteen measures.
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