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The Double-period
Distinction Between Bipartite And Tripartite Forms
Lesson 4
Causes
The Sonatine Form
The Exposition
The Recapitulation
T The Second Rondo Form
The Third Rondo Form
The Necessity Of Form In Music


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The Exposition
The Recapitulation
Causes
The Sonata-allegro Form
1 Augmentation Of The Regular Form
4 Mixture Of Characteristic Traits
Length Of The Regular Phrase
Cadences In General
Lesson 12
2 Abbreviation Of The Regular Form


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The Phrase
The Period
Dissolution
Application Of The Forms
Lesson 13
Lesson 11
The Song-form Or The Part-form
Causes
Modified Repetitions
Exact Repetitions



Measures





A measure is a group of beats. The beats are added
together, in measures, to obtain a larger unit of time, because larger
divisions are more convenient for longer periods; just as we prefer to
indicate the dimensions of a house, or farm, in feet or rods, rather
than in inches.

Measures differ considerably in extent in various compositions,
inasmuch as the number of beats enclosed between the vertical bars may
be, and is, determined quite arbitrarily. What is known as a Simple
measure contains either the two beats (heavy-light) of the fundamental
duple group, or the three beats (heavy-light-light) of the triple
group, shown in the preceding chapter. Compound measures are such as
contain more than two or three beats, and they must always be
multiplications, or groups, of a Simple measure; for whether so small
as to comprise only the fundamental groups of two or three beats (as in
2-4, 3-8, 3-4 measure), or so large as to embrace as many as twelve
beats or more (as in 4-4, 6-4, 6-8, 9-8, 12-8 measure), the measure
represents, practically, either the duple or triple species, Simple or
Compound. Thus, a measure of four beats, sometimes called (needlessly)
quadruple rhythm, is merely twice two beats; the species is actually
duple; the alternation of heavy and light pulses is regular; and
therefore the third beat is again an accent, as well as the first,
though less heavy. A measure of 6-8 is triple species, with accents
at beats one and four, precisely as if an additional vertical bar were
inserted after the third beat. In a word, then, the size of the
adopted measure is of no consequence, as long as it is retained
uniformly through the section to which it belongs; and there is no
real difference between 2-4 and 4-4 measure, excepting in the number
of bars used.

A curious and rare exception to this rule of the compound measure
occurs when five or seven beats are grouped together. This involves a
mingling of the duple and triple species, and, consequently, an
irregular disposition of the accents; for instance, 5-4 measure is
either 3+2 or 2+3 beats, with corresponding accentuation:





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