The possibility of deviating from the fundamental standard of

phrase-dimension (four measures) has been repeatedly intimated, and is

treated with some detail in the text preceding Example 17, which should

be reviewed. It is now necessary to examine some of the conditions that

lead to this result.

The causes of irregular phrase-dimension are two-fold; it may result

(1) from simply inserting an additional cadence, or from omitting one. Or

(2) it may be the consequence of some specific manipulation of the

phrase-melody with a view to its extension or expansion, its development

into a broader and more exhaustive exposition of its contents.