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The Great Scale
Nasal Nasal Singing
Resonant Consonants
The Head Voice
The Vowel-sound _ah_
Practical Exercises
The Cure
Singing Covered
The Tongue
My Title To Write On The Art Of Song

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Preparation For Singing
The Sensations Of The Palate
Development And Equalization
The Highest Head Tones
Extension Of The Compass And Equalization Of Registers
The Position Of The Mouth (contraction Of The Muscles Of Speech)
The Sensation Of The Resonance Of The Head Cavities
Italian And German
In Conclusion
The Singer's Physiological Studies

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The Sensation Of The Resonance Of The Head Cavities
White Voices
Auxiliary Vowels
Equalizing The Voice; Breath; Form
The Vowel-sound _ah_
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How To Hold One's Self When Practising
Theodor Wachtel

The Tremolo

Big voices, produced by large, strong organs, through which the breath
can flow in a broad, powerful stream, are easily disposed to suffer
from the tremolo, because the outflow of the breath against the vocal
cords occurs too immediately. The breath is sent directly out from
the lungs and the body, instead of being driven by the abdominal
pressure forward against the chest and the controlling apparatus. Not
till this has been done, should it be admitted, in the smallest
amounts, and under control to the vocal cords. It does not pause, but
streams through them without burdening them, though keeping them
always more or less stretched, in which the muscular power of
contraction and relaxation assists. Streaming gently out from the
vocal cords, it is now led, with the support of the tongue, to its
resonance chambers, all the corners of which it fills up equally. Even
the strongest vocal cords cannot for any length of time stand the
uncontrolled pressure of the breath. They lose their tension, and the
result is the tremolo.

In inhaling, the chest should be raised not at all or but very little.
(For this reason exercises for the expansion of the chest must be
practised.) The pressure of the breath against the chest must be
maintained as long as it is desired to sustain a tone or sing a
phrase. As soon as the pressure of the abdomen and chest ceases, the
tone and the breath are at an end. Not till toward the very end of the
breath, that is, of the tone or the phrase, should the pressure be
slowly relaxed, and the chest slowly sink.

While I am singing, I must press the breath against the chest
evenly, for in this way alone can it be directed evenly against the
vocal cords, which is the chief factor in a steady tone and the only
possible and proper use of the vocal cords.

The uninterrupted control of the breath pressure against the chest
gives to the tone, as soon as it has found a focal point on the raised
palate at the attack, the basis, the body, which must be maintained
even in the softest pianissimo. Control of the breath should never
cease. The tone should never be made too strong to be kept under
control, nor too weak to be kept under control. This should be an
inflexible rule for the singer.

I direct my whole attention to the pressure against the chest, which
forms the door of the supply chamber of breath. Thence I admit to the
vocal cords uninterruptedly only just so much as I wish to admit. I
must not be stingy, nor yet extravagant with it. Besides giving
steadiness, the pressure against the chest (the controlling apparatus)
establishes the strength and the duration of the tone. Upon the
proper control depends the length of the breath, which, without
interruption, rises from here toward the resonating chambers, and,
expelled into the elastic form of the resonating apparatus, there must
obey our will.

It can now be seen how easily the vocal cords can be injured by an
uncontrolled current of breath, if it is directed against them in all
its force. One need only see a picture of the vocal cords to
understand the folly of exposing these delicate little bands to the
explosive force of the breath. They cannot be protected too much; and
also, they cannot be too carefully exercised. They must be spared all
work not properly theirs; this must be put upon the chest tension
muscles, which in time learn to endure an out-and-out thump.

Even the vibrato, to which full voices are prone, should be nipped in
the bud, for gradually the tremolo, and later even worse, is developed
from it. Life can be infused into the tone by means of the lips--that
is, in a way that will do no harm. But of that later.

Vibrato is the first stage, tremolo the second; a third and last, and
much more hopeless, shows itself in flat singing on the upper middle
tones of the register. Referable in the same way to the overburdening
of the vocal cords is the excessive straining of the throat muscles,
which, through continual constriction, lose their power of elastic
contraction and relaxation because pitch and duration of the tone are
gained in an incorrect way, by forcing. Neither should be forced;
pitch should be merely maintained, as it were, soaring; strength
should not be gained by a cramped compression of the throat muscles,
but by the completest possible filling with breath of the breath-form
and the resonance chambers, under the government of the controlling

Neglect of the head tones (overtones) is paid for dearly.

The more violent exertions are made to force them, and to keep them,
the worse are the results. For most of the unhappy singers who do
this, there is but one result: the voice is lost. How pitiful!

If the first and second stages of tremolo are difficult to remedy,
because the causes are rarely understood and the proper measures to
take for their removal still more rarely, the repair of the last stage
of the damage is nothing less than a fight, in which only an
unspeakable patience can win the victory.

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Previous: Extension Of The Compass And Equalization Of Registers

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