Auxiliary Words And Endings

96. Being a list of articles, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and

endings, often utilized in compounding terms relating to musical


A--preposition--variously translated to, at, for, by, in, with, towards.

A cappella--in church style.

A capriccio--at the fancy of the performer.

A deux mains--for two hands.

A mezza voce--with half voice.

A la, or
lla--in the manner of. Alla marcia--in the style of a


Assai--very, or very much. Allegro assai--very fast.

Ben--well. Ben marcato--well marked.

Coi, con, col, colla, colle, collo--with, or with the.

Con amore--with tenderness.

Colla voce--with the voice.

Come--as, like. Come primo--as at first.

Contra--against. In compound words means an octave below.

Da--from. Da Capo--from the head.

Di--by, with, of, for. Di bravura--with daring.

Di molto--exceedingly--very much. Allegro di molto--exceedingly


Doppio--double. Doppio movimento--double movement.

E, ed, et--and. Cresc. et accel.--louder and faster.

Ensemble--together, the opposite of solo.

Il, La, l', le--the. Il basso--the bass. L'istesso tempo--the same


Il piu--the most. Il piu forte possible--as loudly as possible.

Issimo--Italian superlative ending. Forte--fortissimo.

Ino, etto--Italian diminutive endings. Andante--andantino.


Meno--less. Meno forte--less loud.

Mente--the ending which changes a noun or adjective to an adverb.

Largo largamente.

Mezzo or mezza--half, or medium. Mezzo forte--medium loud.

Molto--much, or very much. Molto cresc.--very much louder.

Nel, nella, etc.--in the, or at the. Nel battere--at the down beat.

Non--not. Non tanto--not too much.

Ossia--or else. Ossia piu facile--or else more easily.

Per--for. Per il violino--for the violin.

Peu--little. Un peu cresc.--a little increase in tone.

Piu--more. Piu forte--more loudly.

Poco--little. Poco a poco--little by little.

Poi--then. E poi la coda--and then the coda.

Possibile--possible. Forte possibile--as loudly as possible.

[Transcriber's Note: Corrected error possible for Italian


Quasi--in the manner of. Allegro quasi andante--a fairly rapid

movement, yet in the style of an andante; almost as slow as an andante.

Sans--without. Sans pedales--without pedals.

Sempre--always, or continually. Sempre forte--a long passage to be

played forte throughout its entirety.

Senza--without. Senza accompagnamento--without accompaniment.

Sino, sin--as far as. See p. 14, note.

Solo--alone. Opposite of ensemble.

Sub--under or lower. Sub-dominant--the under dominant.

Tanto--same as troppo, q.v.

Tre--three. Tre corde--three strings.

Tres--very. Tres vivement--very lively.

Troppo--too much. Non tanto allegro, or non troppo allegro--not

too fast.

Una, un, uno--one, or a. Una corda--one string. Un peu--a little.

A working knowledge of these auxiliary terms will aid the student

greatly in arriving at the meaning of hundreds of terms without stopping

to look up each individual one.