Enlargement By Repetition

The first and simplest method is to

increase the length of the period-form by the process of repetition;

repetition of the entire sentence, or of any one--or several--of its

component members, in a manner very similar to that already seen in

connection with the single phrase (Chap. VI, Ex. 39, etc.), and under

the same conditions of Unity and Variety; that is, the repetitions may

be nearly or quite literal, or they may
have been subjected to such

alterations and variations as the skill and fancy of the composer


An example of complete repetition (that is, the repetition of the

entire period), with simple but effective changes, may be found in

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 13, Adagio, measures 1 to 16.

Examine it carefully, and observe, among other details, the treatment

of the perfect cadence (in the 8th measure). See also, Song Without

Words, No. 27, measures 5 to 20.

The repetition of one of the two phrases is exhibited in the following

(Mozart, sonata No. 14):--

The Antecedent is a regular four-measure phrase, with semicadence (made

on the tonic chord, but with 3d as uppermost tone); the Consequent is

a six-measure phrase, with perfect cadence, and is repeated, with

partial change of register. The whole is a period with repeated


A somewhat elaborate example of extension by detail-repetition is seen

in the following (Chopin, Mazurka No. 20, op. 30, No. 3--see the


These sixteen measures are the product out of eight measures, by

extension; that is, they are reducible to a simple period-form (as may

be verified by omitting the passages indicated under dotted lines), and

they represent in reality nothing more than its manipulation and

development. The original 8-measure period makes a complete musical

sentence, and was so devised in the mind of the composer, without the

extensions. The method of manipulation is ingenious; observe the

variety obtained by the striking dynamic changes from ff to pp;

and, hand in hand with these, the changes from major to minor, and back

(as shown by the inflection of b-flat to b-double-flat). These are

first applied to members only, of the Antecedent, as indicated by the

brackets a and b, and then to the entire Consequent phrase.

Observe, also, that in the repeated form of the latter, the rhythm is

modified to a smoother form, during two measures. The result here

achieved is constant Unity and constant Variety from almost every point

of view, admirably counterbalanced.