Distinction Between Bipartite And Tripartite Forms
The Sonatine Form
T The Second Rondo Form
The Third Rondo Form
The Necessity Of Form In Music
Cadences In General
Random Music Lessons
4 Mixture Of Characteristic Traits
The First Part
The Principle Of Extension
Locating The Cadences
Next to the recognition and comparison of the
different melodic sections of a composition (in a word, the melodic
delineation of the whole), the most significant task in music analysis
is the locating and classifying of the cadences. They are the angles
of the design, so to speak; and have the same bearing upon the sense of
the music as punctuation marks have in rhetoric. Intelligent and
effective phrasing, adequate interpretation of the composer's purpose,
is impossible without a distinct exposition of the cadences,--if not of
the inferior points of interruption between motives, also.
The best general rule for locating cadences is, probably, to look for
them in the right place, namely, in the fourth measure from the
beginning of each phrase. The fairly regular operation of this rule
has been verified in Lesson 4. But exceptions have also been seen (in
Ex. 17), and many more are certain to be encountered, simply because
the principle of Unity (exemplified by the prevalence of the
four-measure standard) must interact with the principle of Variety
(exemplified in all phrases of irregular extent).
Therefore, the more reliable method, as already stated, is to define
the beginning of the following phrase,--for each successive beginning
involves a foregone cadence, of course. No very definite directions
can be given; experience, observation, careful study and comparison of
the given illustrations, will in time surely enable the student to
recognize the signs of a beginning,--such as the recurrence of some
preceding principal member of the melody, or some such change in
melodic or rhythmic character as indicates that a new phrase is being
LESSON 5. Analyze, again, Schumann, Jugend Album (op. 68), No. 6,
locating every cadence and defining its quality,--as perfect cadence or
semicadence. Also Nos. 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 14, 15, 16, 3,--and
others. As a curious illustration of the difficulty which may
sometimes attend the analysis of phrases and cadences, the student may
glance at No. 31 (Kriegslied, D major); a more baffling example will
rarely be found, for the piece abounds in irregular phrase-dimensions,
and cadences that are disguised to the verge of unrecognizability; the
only fairly reliable clue the composer has given lies in the formation
of the melodic members (the clue intimated in the explanatory text
following Ex. 35).
Also Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 34 (first phrase six
measures long); No. 40; No. 18.
Also Beethoven's pianoforte sonata, op. 22, third movement
(Menuetto); op. 28, second movement (Andante).
Again the student is reminded that it is not only permissible, but wise
and commendable, to pass by all confusing cases; without being careless
or downright superficial, to observe a certain degree of prudent
indifference at confusing points, trusting to that superior
intelligence which he shall surely gain through wider experience.
CCHAPTE RIRREGULAR PHRASES.